Как провести интервью во время и после пандемии COVID-19

  • Бекки Сэлф Ливерпульский университет Джона Мурса, Ливерпуль, Великобритания B.self@2019.ljmu.ac.uk
  • Александр Павлович Рязанцев Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Москва, Россия apryazantsev_1@edu.hse.ru
    elibrary Author_id 1039469
Для цитирования
Сэлф Б., Рязанцев А. П. Как провести интервью во время и после пандемии COVID-19 // Интеракция. Интервью. Интерпретация. 2021. Том 13. № 4. С. 9-27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.19181/inter.2021.13.4.1

Аннотация

Проведение интервью по телефону или с использованием VoIP (IP-телефония, телефонная связь по протоколу IP) стало необходимым вследствие правовых ограничений и мер безопасности, введенных в период пандемии COVID-19. Это способствовало началу научного диалога относительно выбора типа интервью, а также признанию, что именно личные интервью (face-to-face interview) являются «золотым стандартом» [Novick, 2008: 397]. Широкая общественность также стала постепенно привыкать к использованию VoIP в своей повседневной жизни. В данной статье я анализирую это изменение в способах коммуникации и то влияние, которое оно может оказать на режимы проведения интервью. При этом контекст исследователя и контекст участника остаются первостепенными при принятии решения о том, какой режим интервью использовать. По этой причине модель Ш. Олтман [Oltmann, 2016] была расширена за счет включения в нее VoIP, предоставляя тем самым исследователю более широкую основу для принятия информированного решения при выборе режима интервью.
Ключевые слова:
режимы интервью, Zoom, VoIP, Skype, телефон, качественное интервью, личное интервью, качественное исследование

Биографии авторов

Бекки Сэлф, Ливерпульский университет Джона Мурса, Ливерпуль, Великобритания
Кандидат медицинских наук, Центр обмена студентами факультета здравоохранения
Александр Павлович Рязанцев, Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Москва, Россия
Аспирант департамента социологии

Литература

Abraham H.N. et al. Engaging Third-Year Medical Students on Their Internal Medicine Clerkship in Telehealth During COVID-19 // Cureus. 2020. Vol. 12. № 6. Art. e8791. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8791

Addo G. Worshipping on Zoom: A Digital Ethnographic Study of African Pentecostals Churches and Their Liturgical Practices during Covid-19. Malmö: Malmö University, 2020. URL: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:mau:diva-23360 (дата обращения: 19.02.2021).

Alvesson M. Beyond Neopositivists, Romantics, and Localists: A Reflexive Approach to Interviews in Organizational Research // Academy of Management Review. 2003. Vol. 28. № 1. P. 13—33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2003.8925191

Archibald M.M. et al. Using Zoom Videoconferencing for Qualitative Data Collection: Perceptions and Experiences of Researchers and Participants // International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406919874596

Bailey K.D. Methods of Social Research. 3rd ed. New York: The Free Press, 1987.

Bampton R., Cowton C.J. The E-Interview // Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research. 2002. Vol. 3. № 2. Art. 9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17169/fqs-3.2.848

Bayles M. Is Physical Proximity Essential to the Psychoanalytic Process? An Exploration through the Lens of Skype // Psychoanalytic Dialogues. 2012. Vol. 22. № 5. P. 569—585. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10481885.2012.717043

Bekes V., Aafjes-van Doorn K. Psychotherapists Attitudes toward Online Therapy during the COVID-19 Pandemic // Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 2020. Vol. 30. № 2. P. 238—247. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/int0000214

Boman I.-L. et al. Exploring the Usability of a Videophone Mock-up for Persons with Dementia and Their Significant Others // BMC Geriatrics. 2014. Vol. 14. № 1. Art. 49. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-14-49

Brink P.J. Issues in Reliability and Validity // Qualitative Nursing Research: A Contemporary Dialogue / Ed. by J.M. Morse. Newbury Park: SAGE, 1991. P. 164—186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483349015.n20

Bryman A. Social Research Methods. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Carr E.C., Worth A. The Use of the Telephone Interview for Research // NT Research. 2001. Vol. 6. № 1. P. 511—524. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F136140960100600107

Cheng F.K. Dilemmas of Chinese Lesbian Youths in Contemporary Mainland China // Sexuality & Culture. 2018. Vol. 22. № 1. P. 190—208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-017-9460-8

Deakin H., Wakefield K. Skype Interviewing: Reflections of Two PhD Researchers // Qualitative Research. 2014. Vol. 14. № 5. P. 603—616. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1468794113488126

Denzin N.K. The Research Act: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods. 3rd ed. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, 1989.

Dias M., Lopes R., Teles A. Will Virtual Replace Classroom Teaching? Lessons from Virtual Classes via Zoom in the Times of COVID-19 // Journal of Advances in Education and Philosophy. 2020. P. 208—213. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36348/jaep.2020.v04i05.004

Dinham S. The Use of the Telephone Interview in Educational Research: One Case Study // Education Research and Perspectives. 1993. Vol. 20. № 1. P. 17—26.

Dodds S., Hess A.C.H. Adapting Research Methodology during COVID-19: Lessons for Transformative Service Research // Journal of Service Management. 2020. Vol. 32. № 2. P. 203—217. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JOSM-05-2020-0153

Doody O., Noonan M. Preparing and Conducting Interviews to Collect Data // Nurse Researcher. 2013. Vol. 20. № 5. P. 28—32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7748/nr2013.05.20.5.28.e327

Gillham B. Research Interviewing: The Range of Techniques. Berkshire: Open University Press, 2005.

Glogowska M., Young P., Lockyer L. Propriety, Process and Purpose: Considerations of the Use of the Telephone Interview Methods in an Educational Research Study // Higher Education. 2011. Vol. 62. № 1. P. 17—26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-010-9362-2

Gray L.M. et al. Expanding Qualitative Research Interviewing Strategies: Zoom Video Communications // The Qualitative Report. 2020. Vol. 25. № 5. P. 1292—1301. DOI: https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715%2F2020.4212

Hanna P. Using Internet Technologies (such as Skype) as a Research Medium: A Research Note // Qualitative Research. 2012. Vol. 12. № 2. P. 239—242. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1468794111426607

Hesse-Biber Sh., Griffin A.J. Internet-Mediated Technologies and Mixed Methods Research: Problems and Prospects // Journal of Mixed Methods Research. 2013. Vol. 7. № 1. P. 43—61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1558689812451791

Holt A. Using the Telephone for Narrative Interviewing: A Research Note // Qualitative Research. 2010. Vol. 10. № 1. P. 113—121. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1468794109348686

Hubbard G. et al. Supportive Care Needs of Women with Breast Cancer in Rural Scotland // Supportive Care in Cancer. 2015. Vol. 23. № 6. P. 1523—1532. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-014-2501-z

Jourian T.J. Trans*forming College Masculinities: Carving out Trans*masculine Pathways through the Threshold of Dominance // International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education. 2017. Vol. 30. № 3. P. 245—265. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09518398.2016.1257752

Kalekin-Fishman D. Looking at Interviewing: From “Just Talk” to Meticulous Method // Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research. 2002. Vol. 3. № 4. Art. 38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17169/fqs-3.4.800

Kazmer M.M., Xie B. Qualitative Interviewing in Internet Studies: Playing with the Media, Playing with the Method // Information, Community and Society. 2008. Vol. 11. № 2. P. 257—278. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13691180801946333

Knox S., Burkard A.W. Qualitative Research Interviews // Psychotherapy Research. 2009. Vol. 19. № 4—5. P. 566—575. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10503300802702105

Kominers S.D. et al. Zoom Video Communications: Eric Yuans Leadership during COVID-19. Harvard Business School Case 821-014. 2020. URL: https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=58693 (дата обращения: 19.02.2021).

Lambert S.D., Loiselle C.G. Combining Individual Interviews and Focus Groups to Enhance Data Richness // Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2008. Vol. 62. № 2. P. 228—237. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04559.x

Lechuga V.M. Exploring Culture from a Distance: The Utility of Telephone Interviews in Qualitative Research // International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education. 2012. Vol. 25. № 3. P. 251—268. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09518398.2010.529853

Lo Iacono V., Symonds P., Brown D.H.K. Skype as a Tool for Qualitative Research Interviews // Sociological Research Online. 2016. Vol. 21. № 2. P. 103—117. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5153%2Fsro.3952

Lobe B., Morgan D., Hoffman K.A. Qualitative Data Collection in an Era of Social Distancing // International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406920937875

Longhurst R. Semi-Structured Interviews and Focus Groups // Key Methods in Geography / Ed. by N. Clifford et al. Thousand Oaks: SAGE, 2003. P. 143—156.

Magnusson E., Marecek J. Doing Interview-Based Qualitative Research: A Learner's Guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781107449893

Maitland C.F. Now You See It, Now You Don't: Digital Connectivity in Marginalized Communities // Computer. 2018. Vol. 51. № 6. P. 62—71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MC.2018.2701624

Novick G. Is There a Bias against Telephone Interviews in Qualitative Research? // Research in Nursing and Health. 2008. № 31. P. 391—398. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.20259

Oltmann Sh.M. Qualitative Interviews: A Methodological Discussion of the Interviewer and Respondent Contexts // Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research. 2016. Vol. 17. № 2. Art. 15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17169/fqs-17.2.2551

Opdenakker R. Advantages and Disadvantages of Four Interview Techniques in Qualitative Research // Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research. 2006. Vol. 7. № 4. Art. 11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17169/fqs-7.4.175

Orne M.T. On the Social Psychology of the Psychological Experiment: With Particular Reference to Demand Characteristics and Their Implications // American Psychologist. 1962. Vol. 17. № 11. P. 776—783. DOI: https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/h0043424

Puddister K., Small T.S. Trial by Zoom? The Response to COVID-19 by Canada's Courts // Canadian Journal of Political Science. 2020. Vol. 53. № 2. P. 373—377. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1017%2FS0008423920000505

Sandelowski M. Reembodying Qualitative Inquiry // Qualitative Health Research. 2002. Vol. 12. № 1. P. 104—115. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732302012001008

Seitz S. Pixilated Partnerships, Overcoming Obstacles in Qualitative Interviews via Skype: A Research Note // Qualitative Research. 2016. Vol. 16. № 2. P. 229—235. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1468794115577011

Shuy R.W. In-Person Versus Telephone Interviewing // Handbook of Interview Research: Context and Method / Ed. by J.F. Gubrium, J.A. Holstein. Thousand Oaks: SAGE, 2002. P. 537—555. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412973588.n32

Sipes J.B.A., Roberts L.D., Mullan B. Voice-Only Skype for Use in Researching Sensitive Topics: A Research Note // Qualitative Research in Psychology. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2019.1577518

Skinner K. et al. Giving Voice to Food Insecurity in a Remote Indigenous Community in Subarctic Ontario, Canada: Traditional Ways, Way to Cope, Ways Forward // BMC Public Health. 2013. № 13. Art. 427. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-427

Stephens N. Collecting Data from Elites and Ultra Elites: Telephone and Face-to-Face Interviews with Macroeconomists // Qualitative Research. 2007. Vol. 7. № 2. P. 203—216. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794107076020

Sturges J.E., Hanrahan K.J. Comparing Telephone and Face-to-Face Qualitative Interviewing: A Research Note // Qualitative Research. 2004. Vol. 4. № 1. P. 107—118. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1468794104041110

Sullivan J.R. Skype: An Appropriate Method of Data Collection for Qualitative Interviews? // The Hilltop Review. 2012. Vol. 6. № 1. P. 54—60.

Sweet L. Telephone Interviewing: Is It Compatible with Interpretive Phenomenological Research? // Contemporary Nurse. 2002. Vol. 12. № 1. P. 58—63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5172/conu.12.1.58

Sy M. et al. Doing Interprofessional Research in the COVID-19 Era: A Discussion Paper // Journal of Interprofessional Care. 2020. Vol. 34. № 5. P. 600—606. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820.2020.1791808

Taylor S.J., Bogdan R., DeVault M. Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods: A Guidebook and Resource. 4th ed. Hoboken: Wiley, 2015.

Vogl S. Telephone Versus Face-to-Face Interviews: Mode Effect on Semi-Structured Interviews with Children // Sociological Methodology. 2013. Vol. 43. № 1. P. 133—177. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0081175012465967

Ward K., Gott M., Hoare K. Participants' Views of Telephone Interviews within a Grounded Theory Study // Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2015. Vol. 71. № 12. P. 2775—2785. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.12748

Whale K. The Use of Skype and Telephone Interviews in Sensitive Qualitative Research with Young People: Experiences from the ROCCA Continence Study // Qualitative Methods Psychology Bulletin. 2017. Vol. 23. URL: https://research-information.bris.ac.uk/en/publications/the-use-of-skype-and-telephone-interviews-in-sensitive-qualitativ (дата обращения: 23.08.2021).

Williams S., Sheffield D., Knibb R.C. “Everything's from the Inside out with PCOS”: Exploring Women's Experiences of Living with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Comorbidities through Skype Interviews // Health Psychology Open. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2055102915603051

Wilson V. Research Methods: Interviews // Evidence Based Library and Information Practice. 2012. Vol. 7. № 2. P. 96¬—98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18438/B89P5B
Статья

Поступила: 25.09.2021

Финальная версия: 03.12.2021

Опубликована: 26.12.2021

Форматы цитирования
Другие форматы цитирования:

APA
Сэлф, Б., & Рязанцев, А. П. (2021). Как провести интервью во время и после пандемии COVID-19. Интеракция. Интервью. Интерпретация, 13(4), 9-27. https://doi.org/10.19181/inter.2021.13.4.1
Раздел
Исследовательская рефлексия